POST 14: REFERENCES (part 1)

I have added these references on Zetero. I can not get them in the correct format. The following reviews journals based on stretch and warm up protocols

Measurement of turnout in dance research: a critical review. – PubMed – NCBI

J Dance Med Sci. 2008;12(4):121-35. Review

Method: literature review

Turnout results from summative contributions of the hip, knee, lower-leg, and the foot-ankle complex. The most frequently reported measurement is hip external rotation. No normative data exist for component and summative measures or for different categories of dancers, making screening, clinical assessment, and research problematic. There is a need to standardize component measurements, develop an inclusive measurement procedure for total turnout, and establish normative data for each measurement and for different categories of dancers.

In conclusion, recommendations are made for: use of selected hip external range of motion and tibial version measurements as the most important components of turnout; a procedure for assessing total turnout; adoption of conventions for reporting data in compatible forms; and the development of normative data sets for different categories of dancers.

An evaluation of differences in hip external rotation strength and range of motion between female dancers and non-dancers. VERY RELIVANT PROCEDURES

Methods: Angle of rotation and isokinetic testing on a KinCom dynamometer.

Ballet dancers have greater inner range, angle specific strength and inner range ER ROM, demonstrated by a shift in the dancers’ strength curves. This shift in the strength curve towards the inner range of hip ER may be an adaptive training response. The right side had greater inner ER and total ER ROM than the left in both groups. There was no difference in total ER ROM between groups (p = 0.133). Significant differences were shown by a shift in the strength curve.

Stretching and injury prevention: an obscure relationship. – PubMed – NCBI

Method: literature review

Increasing the flexibility of a muscle-tendon unit promotes better performances and decreases the number of injuries. No scientifically based prescription for stretching exercises exists and no conclusive statements can be made about the relationship of stretching and athletic injuries. Type of sports activity in which an individual is participating. Sports involving bouncing and jumping activities with a high intensity of stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs) [e.g. soccer and football] require a muscle-tendon unit that is compliant enough to store and release the high amount of elastic energy that benefits performance in such sports. Injury results where an insufficient compliant muscle-tendon unit, the demands in energy absorption and release may rapidly exceed the capacity of the muscle-tendon unit. Warm up should increase the compliance of the muscle-tendon unit. Sports activity with low-intensity, or limited SSCs (e.g. jogging, cycling and swimming) there is no need for a very compliant muscle-tendon unit since most of its power generation is a consequence of active (contractile) muscle work that needs to be directly transferred (by the tendon) to the articular system to generate motion. Stretching (and making the tendon compliant) is not advantageous.

Acute effect of a ballistic and a static stretching exercise bout on flexibility and maximal strength. – PubMed – NCBI

Different stretching techniques have been used during warm-up routines. However, these routines may decrease force production.

Method: 14 women (same age BMI) performed 3 experimental sessions: a control session (estimation of 45 degrees leg press one-repetition maximum [1RM]), a ballistic session (20 minutes of ballistic stretch and 45 degrees leg press 1RM), and a static session (20 minutes of static stretch and 45 degrees leg press 1RM). Maximal strength decreased after static stretching (213.2 +/- 36.1 to 184.6 +/- 28.9 kg), but it was unaffected by ballistic stretching (208.4 +/- 34.8 kg). In addition, static stretching exercises produce a greater acute improvement in flexibility compared with ballistic stretching exercises. Consequently, static stretching may not be recommended before athletic events or physical activities that require high levels of force. On the other hand, ballistic stretching could be more appropriate because it seems less likely to decrease maximal strength.

Does strength training inhibit gains in range of motion from flexibility training in older adults? – PubMed – NCBI

METHOD: Thirty-one untrained men between the ages of 50 and 74

                 Investigated on shoulder and hip range of motion three times per week for 10 wk.

SF training consisted of a 3-min warm-up on a stationary bike, approximately 30 min of heavy resistance strength training, and about 10 min of static stretches performed before and after each training session. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), percentage of body fat, and muscular strength (three-repetition maximum and peak isokinetic torque) were assessed before and after training for the SF group. Shoulder abduction, shoulder flexion, and hip flexion were measured with a universal goniometer in all groups before and after the training period.

FO training consisted of the identical warm-up and stretching exercises used in the SF training but without strength training.

Conclusion: FO group increased its range of motion in shoulder abduction to a significantly greater extent than the SF group (P < 0.001), and none of the changes in range of motion for the SF group was significantly different than the changes in the control group.

Acute effect of static and dynamic stretching on hip dynamic range of motion (DROM) during instep kicking in professional soccer playPubMed – NCBI

METHOD: May be linked to the tracker programme I may use. The kicking motions of dominant legs were captured from 18 professional adult male soccer players using 4 3-dimensional digital video cameras at 50 Hz. Hip DROM at backward, forward, and follow-through phases (instep kick phases) after different warm-up protocols consisting of static, dynamic, and no-stretching.

Conclusion: Results promote dynamic stretching for kicks in all directions. This contrasts other journals for football based on the activity assessed. Significant difference in DROM after the dynamic stretching in warm up compared with the static stretching relative to the no-stretching method during (a) the forward phase (b) the follow-through phase and (c) all phases with p < 0.01. There was no benefit for static stretches compared to no stretching.

Acute effect of different stretching methods on Illinois agility test in soccer players. – PubMed – NCBI

Similar to the last reference

Effects of Three Different Stretching Techniques on Vertical Jumping Performance (PDF Download)

This review considered the stretch protocols rather than stretch type and therefore is more precise in benefits

Flexibility techniques considered: (a) ballistic stretching (BS), (b) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF) + BS, and (c) PNF + static stretching (SS).

100 male athletes participated!

METHOD: This should link with the procedures I will propose: Aerobic warm-up (5-minute jog) followed by BS (5 seconds for each stretching exercise), PNF + BS (PNF performed followed by 5 seconds of BS), and PNF + SS (PNF performed followed by 30 seconds of SS) treatment protocol, respectively in the same day. Each stretching treatment was applied for 4 sets bilaterally. In all stretching treatments, lumbar extensor, gluteus maximus, and hamstring muscles were stretched with a single stretching exercise. I will consider set muscle sets. After a 2-minute brief rest period, participants performed 3 trials of VJ test followed by one of the treatment protocols. I would not provide a rest.

Vertical jump performance was evaluated by countermovement jump (CMJ). I may need to include a flexibility consideration: Dividing into 3 groups based on flexibility and prejump performances after warm-up.

Ballistic stretching increased the VJ performance in the groups with low and average flexibility, poor prejumping performance, and also in the whole group

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching + BS affected VJ performance in those with high flexibility.

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation + SS decreased VJ performance in groups of participants with high flexibility, moderate, and high prejumping performance and in whole group.

Ballistic stretching method increased VJ height, therefore seems to be more suitable than PNF + SS and PNF + BS before events that rely on explosive power as a part of warm-up period.

Stretching for Success. : Strength & Conditioning Journal


Good general explanation of the need for a warm up protocol with stretching. Not specific or linked to dance. Not much use.

[Is stretching for sports performance still useful? A review of the literature]. – PubMed – NCBI

Review of several authors. Assumes increasing flexibility of a muscle-tendon unit allows a better performance and decreases sports injuries. Stretching is regularly included in warm-up and in cooling-down. This review identifies there is contradictory findings in the literature. Since 1990, evidence suggests that stretching not only does not prevent injuries, but can also decrease the level of performance. Reason for contradictions: various sports, duration of warm up. Different sports require different warm ups e.g. improved flexibility benefits gymnastic, dancing. In contrary, for sports with slow stretch-shortening cycle such as jogging or cycling, there is no scientific data showing a positive effect of stretching.

X-ray diffraction measurements of the extensibility of actin and myosin filaments in contracting muscle.

Effects of stretching on performances involving stretch-shortening cycles. – PubMed – NCBI

METHOD: Literature review good

RESULTS: Show a need for research into warm up protocols

Approximately half of the studies assessing the acute effect of static stretching reported a detrimental effect on performance, while the remainder found no effect. In contrast, dynamic stretching showed no negative effects and improved performance in half of the trials. Few studies since 2006 have addressed the chronic effect of stretching on functional and sports performance or dance. Plausible mechanisms for the observed effects from stretching are discussed, as well as possible factors that may have contributed to contradictory findings between studies.

LIMITATIONS: Considerable heterogeneity in study design and methods makes comparison between studies challenging.

CONCLUSION: Different types of stretching have differential acute effects on SSC performances. The recommended static stretching required to increase flexibility might induce a negative acute effect on performances involving rapid SSCs, but the effect sizes of these decrements are commonly low, indicating that the acute effect on performance might be limited in practice. No negative acute effects of dynamic stretching were reported. For athletes that require ROM and speed, long-term stretching successfully enhances flexibility without negatively affecting performance. Acute dynamic stretching may induce smaller gains in ROM prior to performance without negative effects.

Efficient Warm-ups: Creating a Warm-up that Works

Not of as much use in this research as it focuses on creating a warm up protocol

Ballistic stretching increases flexibility and acute vertical jump height when combined with basketball activity. – PubMed – NCBI

4 different warm-up protocols followed by 20 minutes of basketball activity on flexibility and vertical jump height. The warm-up groups participated in ballistic stretching, static stretching, sprinting, or basketball shooting (control group).

  1. Flexibility increased for the ballistic, static, and sprint groups compared to the control group, while vertical jump height did not change for any of the groups.
  2. Vertical jump height was not different for any group.
  3. Only ballistic stretching increased in vertical jump 20 minutes after basketball play. Coaches should consider using ballistic stretching as a warm-up for basketball play, as it is beneficial to vertical jump performance.

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