My interest in range of motion (ROM) stems from my own flexibility in second but inability to maintain turnout.  My frustration developed as my turnout improves with extended practice but disappears quickly without.

I am interested in progressing my teaching methods to develop the natural technical qualities of my students, whether it be stamina, strength, flexibility or performance quality. I feel this depends on my understanding of the physiology, continually developing my teaching practice and gaining an understanding of learners needs. I noted boys were less flexible than girls but more quickly benefited from strength building exercises. I want to progress learners safely to ensure the benefits are lifelong.

The following references show: No normative data exist for component and summative measures or for different categories of dancers, making screening, clinical assessment, and research problematic. There is a need to standardize component measurements, develop an inclusive measurement procedure for total turnout, and establish normative data for each measurement and for different categories of dancers.


TURN OUT: The following references investigate the effect of stretching protocols on turnout

‘Turnout measurement procedures, results, and reporting formats vary in dance medicine and science research, making comparisons difficult’.

  1. Measurement of Turnout in Dance Research – A Critical Revie…: ingentaconnect

Describes methods for: use of selected hip external range of motion and tibial version measurements as the most important components of turnout; a procedure for assessing total turnout

  1. Turn Out Tune Up – About External Rotation

(Review explaining outward rotation).

  1. Can 16-18-year-old elite ballet dancers improve their hip and ankle range of motion over a 12-month period? – PubMed – NCBI

Dancers ages 16-18 years who enter full-time ballet training did not augment their ankle dorsiflexion. Some, increased their hip active external rotation over 12 months. Hip ER was more likely to improve in the first-year rather than second-year student in this elite full-time training school

  1. Measurement of turnout in dance research: a critical review. – PubMed – NCBI

J Dance Med Sci. 2008;12(4):121-35. Review

Method: literature review

Turnout results from summative contributions of the hip, knee, lower-leg, and the foot-ankle complex. The most frequently reported measurement is hip external rotation. Selected hip external range of motion and tibial version measurements are the most important components of turnout; a procedure for assessing total turnout; adoption of conventions for reporting data in compatible forms; and the development of normative data sets for different categories of dancers.

  1. An evaluation of differences in hip external rotation strength and range of motion between female dancers and non-dancers. VERY RELIVANT PROCEDURES

Methods: Angle of rotation and isokinetic testing on a KinCom dynamometer.

Ballet dancers have greater inner range, angle specific strength and inner range ER ROM, demonstrated by a shift in the dancers’ strength curves. This shift in the strength curve towards the inner range of hip ER may be an adaptive training response. The right side had greater inner ER and total ER ROM than the left in both groups. There was no difference in total ER ROM between groups (p = 0.133). Significant differences were shown by a shift in the strength curve.

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