POST 19: REFERENCES STRETCH PROTOCOLS

My main question considers the benefits of a cardio and stretch within the warm up. I have chosen the warm up as prior training has not been completed and this will generate more accurate results. The purpose of researching the warm up is to improve my teaching by investigating effective strategies but is of greater importance to learning as I explore the benefits of my lesson content on engaging and progressing the technique of students. I will become a better practitioner by identifying alignment, ROM, strength and stamina possessed by my students and corrections which will benefit their development.

It is clear that research remains divided as to the benefits of stretch protocols on dance performance, suggesting this is an effective area for research. Additionally, there is less research specifically on dancers when compared to other athletes. It is difficult to categorise the benefits of stretch types and conclusions as the stretch protocols differ in length and difficulty. Different studies focus on the benefits of the stretch protocols to a particular sport and this may not best benefit dance students. The following references are divided into sections based on current research into stretching. I identify the conclusions for each reference.

STRETCH PROTOCOLS:

Pro dynamic stretches/anti-static stretches

  1. The acute effects of dynamic and ballistic stretching on vertical jump height, force, and power. – PubMed – NCBI

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18841078

Results: Neither dynamic stretching nor ballistic stretching will result in an increase in vertical jump height or force. However, dynamic stretching elicited gains in jump power post stretch.

2. Acute Effect of Passive Static Stretching on Lower-Body Stre… : The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research

http://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Abstract/2013/04000/Acute_Effect_of_Passive_Static_Stretching_on.13.aspx

Intensive stretching such as lower-body PSS should be avoided before training the lower body or performing the 1RM in the squat exercise in favour of a dynamic warm-up using resistance training equipment in the lower-body musculature

3. Acute effects of a warm-up including active, passive, and dynamic stretching on vertical jump performance. – PubMed – NCBI

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22067244

A dynamic stretching intervention appears to be more suitable for use as part of a warm-up in young athletes

4. Acute Effects of Two Different Warm-Up Protocols on Flexibility and Lower Limb Explosive Performance in Male and Female High Level Athletes

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3763313/

Lower limb power may be decreased after long periods of stretching, but performance of explosive exercises may reverse this phenomenon

5. Altered reflex sensitivity after repeated and prolonged passive muscle stretching.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10194214

Demonstrated a clear deterioration of muscle function immediately after prolonged repeated passive stretching RPS.

6. The impact of different warm-up protocols on vertical jump performance in male collegiate athletes. – PubMed – NCBI

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18296979

Footballers: The static stretching negated the benefits gained from a general warm-up when performed immediately before a VJ test.

7. A Dynamic Warm-up Model Increases Quadriceps Strength and Hamstring Flexibility (PDF Download Available)

  1. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/221975405_A_Dynamic_Warm-up_Model_Increases_Quadriceps_Strength_and_Hamstring_Flexibility

VERY RELEVANT BUT NOT DANCE RELATED Male and female footballers

The resting control and static stretch did not significantly affect any flexibility, strength, or vertical jump measures. Dynamic warm up improved eccentric quadriceps strength and hamstrings flexibility, whereas the Static not facilitate any positive or negative changes in muscle flexibility, strength, power, or vertical jump.

8. A Dynamic Warm-up Model Increases Quadriceps Strength and Hamstring Flexibility (PDF Download Available)

http://www.researchgate.net/publication/221975405_A_Dynamic_Warm-up_Model_Increases_Quadriceps_Strength_and_Hamstring_Flexibility

VERY RELEVANT BUT NOT DANCE RELATED Male and female footballers

The resting control and static stretch did not significantly affect any flexibility, strength, or vertical jump measures. The Dynamic warm up significantly improved eccentric quadriceps strength and hamstrings flexibility, whereas the Static not facilitate any positive or negative changes in muscle flexibility, strength, power, or vertical jump. Dynamic may be a better pre-activity warm-up choice than a static stretching.

9. Acute effect of static and dynamic stretching on hip dynamic range of motion (DROM) during instep kicking in professional soccer playPubMed – NCBI

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21358428

Male footballers

Promotes dynamic stretching for kicks in all directions. This contrasts other journals for football based on the activity assessed. Significant difference in DROM after the dynamic stretching in warm up compared with the static stretching relative to the no-stretching method during (a) the forward phase (b) the follow-through phase and (c) all phases. There was no benefit for static stretches compared to no stretching.

Pro ballistic/anti static stretches

10. The effect of static, ballistic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on vertical jump performance.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17313299

Vertical jump performance is diminished for 15 minutes if performed after static or PNF stretching, whereas ballistic stretching has little effect on jumping performance. Consequently, PNF or static stretching should not be performed immediately prior to an explosive athletic movement.

11. Acute effect of a ballistic and a static stretching exercise bout on flexibility and maximal strength. – PubMed – NCBI   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19057408

Different stretching techniques have been used during warm-up routines. However, these routines may decrease force production. Maximal strength decreased after static stretching, but it was unaffected by ballistic stretching. In addition, static stretching exercises produce a greater acute improvement in flexibility compared with ballistic stretching exercises. Consequently, static stretching may not be recommended before athletic events or physical activities that require high levels of force. On the other hand, ballistic stretching could be more appropriate because it seems less likely to decrease maximal strength.

12. Effects of Three Different Stretching Techniques on Vertical Jumping Performance (PDF Download)

http://www.researchgate.net/publication/261801213_Effects_of_Three_Different_Stretching_Techniques_on_Vertical_Jumping_Performance

This review considered the stretch protocols rather than stretch type and therefore is more precise in benefits

Flexibility techniques considered: (a) ballistic stretching (BS), (b) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF) + BS, and (c) PNF + static stretching (SS).

100 male athletes participated!

Ballistic stretching method increased VJ height, therefore seems to be more suitable than PNF + SS and PNF + BS before events that rely on explosive power as a part of warm-up period.

METHOD: This should link with the procedures I will propose

PRO STRETCHING REGULARLY

  1. Does stretching improve performance? A systematic and critical review of the literature. –

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15377965

An acute stretching does not improve force or jump height, and the results for running speed are contradictory. Regular stretching improves force, jump height, and speed.

2. Acute Effects of Stretching Are Not Evident in the Kinematic… : The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research

http://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Abstract/2001/02000/Acute_Effects_of_Stretching_Are_Not_Evident_in_the.17.aspx

Stretching prior to stretch-shortening cycle activities like the vertical jump results in small decreases in performance in some subjects, but the nonsignificant biomechanical changes suggest that neuromuscular inhibition may be the mechanism rather than changes in muscle stiffness

ANTI PROPRIOCEPTION SRETCH

  1. Effect of warm-up and flexibility treatments on vertical jump performance. – PubMed – NCBI

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11710660

BASIC PROTOCOL PROPRIOCEPION stretches.

Decreased vertical jump performances for the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation treatment group. Based on the results of this study, performing proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation before a vertical jump test would be detrimental to performance.

NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT FROM STRETCH PROTOCOLS

1. The effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and dynamic stretching techniques on vertical jump performance. – PubMed – NCBI

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18815572

The 3 different warm-ups did not have a significant effect on vertical jumping. The results also showed there were no gender differences between the 3 different warm-ups.

PRO STATIC STRETCHES IF DURATIONIS SHORT

1.The effect of time and frequency of static stretching on flexibility of the hamstring muscles. – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9327823

Hamstring muscle stretch of 30-second duration increases ROM. No increase in flexibility occurred when the duration of stretching was increased from 30 to 60 seconds or when the frequency of stretching was increased from one to three times per day.

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