MARKING SCHEME FOR PEER REVIEW
1. What are the main strengths of this report?
2. Where are the main areas for improvement?
3. Is the balance between the sections about right?
. Did you feel the article had good flow and structure?
Benefits of peer assessment
- Get insights by reviewing others
- Improve by comparison
- Generic skill development
- Critical thinking
- Problem solving
- Constructive feedback
The review should be:
- Balance of +/-
- Specific (give examples/page numbers)
- Main issues first
- Focused on the material
1. Blooms Taxonomy: The levels of thinking
Three domains of educational activities or learning (Bloom, et al. 1956):
- Cognitive: mental skills (knowledge)
- Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (attitude or self)
- Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (skills)
The cognitive domain was split into 6 levels of learning which built on each other to develop deep thinking. Level one -lowest and Level six – highest
1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application
4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation
Revision of the levels
The following link is to a chart of the 6 levels with examples of their use (Clark, Donald R. (1999). “Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains”).
Edward de Bono (1985)
CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust) Thinking Tools for Schools
The Six Thinking Hats Method
Direct Attention Thinking Tools
The sequences of hats encompass and structure the thinking process toward a distinct goal. The use of the order o the hats can be pre determined or decided as the programme develops.
Sequences always begin and end with a blue hat; the group agrees together how they will think, then they do the thinking, then they evaluate the outcomes of that thinking and what they should do next.
My proposed order: Blue then Green and black to brain storm. White and red assemble facts and direct. Yellow and green generate ideas and solutions. Blue last!!
Schön (1983): The reflective Practitioner (Practice based theory)
Using the reflection ‘in’ and reflection ‘on’ action
1.Teaching session-Reflect in action
2.Planning the next session-Reflect on action
3.Reflection after teaching- Reflection on action
4.Teaching and learning session- Reflection in action
Klobs (1984) (Like Schön but goes further) experiential learning theory (ELT), and Kolb’s learning styles inventory (LSI). Follows on from work of Rogers, Jung, and Piaget.
Continual reflection on what happened before to make a more informed decision and can better position yourself to plan your work more effectively.
Kolb’s model therefore works on two levels – a four-stage cycle:
- Concrete Experience – (CE)
- Reflective Observation – (RO)
- Abstract Conceptualization – (AC)
- Active Experimentation – (AE)
and a four-type definition of learning styles, (each representing the combination of two preferred styles, rather like a two-by-two matrix of the four-stage cycle styles, as illustrated below), for which Kolb used the terms:
- Diverging (CE/RO)
- Assimilating (AC/RO)
- Converging (AC/AE)
- Accommodating (CE/AE)
Links to work of other theorists Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences and VAK learnings styles models
Gibbs (1988) LEARN BY DOING
By starting with basic reflective models you can progress to deeper reflective process.
• The more you engage the deeper the learning
• Use your own analysis system then apply new learning to the next task of similar type
•Learn from practical experience and theory and ongoing experience.
Dynamics of the Model of Learning. Forde & Reeves(2011)
Planning should consider:
• how the professional learning activity will benefit the teacher, colleagues, school children and young people
• what specific outcomes will result from this activity?
• when these outcomes would be evaluated what the evidence basis will be?
Can be undertaken individually but benefits from colleague or line manager (learning/mentoring conversation as part of the professional review process)
The Dynamics of the Model of Learning shows a blend of different types of learning – reflection, enquiry and critique – and the creative connections between these. The model shows the particular activities or contexts for learning to which these relate: professional practice, dialogue, support and ideas.
At the heart of this model are teachers as learners who have a major role in shaping their own development.
All models will assist the writing of the essay and peer reviewing I and then reflecting on the comments given (see later POST).
Bloom, B.S. (Ed.). Engelhart, M.D., Furst, E.J., Hill, W.H., Krathwohl, D.R. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook 1: The Cognitive Domain. New York: David
McKay Co Inc. de Bono, Edward (1985). Six Thinking Hats: An Essential Approach to Business Management. Little, Brown, & Company.
Forde, C.& Reeves, J. (2011). Dynamics of the Model of Learning. The Learning Programme, Glasgow: Western SQH Consortium
Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Further Education Unit, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford.
Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development (Vol. 1). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
McLaughlin, C. Black-Hawkins, K. and McIntyre, D. (2004). Researching Teachers Researching Schools, Researching Networks: Review of the Literature. University of Cambridge: Routledge
Menter, I., Elliott, D., Hulme, M., Lewin, J. & Lowden K. (2011). A Guide to Practitioner research in Education. SAGE publishing.