POST 75: PE SESSION 3

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+/- OF PE

I considered point 1 in BLOG? and BLOG?

RELEVANT LITERATURE

  • Be familiar with current literature in your area:
  • Ensures your work is original
  • Ensures you can pose clear questions by focusing on a particular aspect
  • Consider your research questions alongside the practicalities of collecting and analysing your data
  • Decide on appropriate research questions

USE A MINDMAP TO LINK AND GATHER IDEAS INTO CONPARTMENTS

STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF DATA GATHERING METHOD

A – QUALITATIVE v QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS

Qualitative = positivism = Founded by Auguste Comte

Methods of data collection and analysis

  • Observations are expressed in numerical terms (e.g. frequency/magnitude)
  • Uses a hypothesis – at beginning of an investigation
  • takes place in a laboratory/field setting
  • Replicable
  • Objective -compare and summarise data using statistical methods.
  • All extraneous variables need to be controlled to establish cause (IV) and effect (DV).

Examples: Experiments              Questionnaires         Surveys

      Positives                                                                                Negatives                     

  • Utilise a hypothesis and questions                Do not explore reasons/facts outwith aim
  • Identify variables & predicts relationships   Fails to deal with emotions, thoughts
  • Measure relationship between variables       Studies in a false environment e.g.lab
  • Regard realibility and objectiveness              No consideration of individual
  • as highly important                                        differences
  • Prefer controlled environments (like labs)
  • Aim to infer a cause-effect relationship and to be able to generalise from the study
  • Present the findings in statistical language
  • Generalisable (NOMOTHETIC)
  • Scientific/numerical/Hard/factual
  • Proposes a hypothesis (DEDUCTIVE).
  • Easy to analyse as it deals with numbers

 

Quantitative = anti-positivism Founded by William Dilthey

Gathered through direct interaction with participants.

Examples:     Observations       Interviews      Cases studies       Focus groups

  • textual, descriptive data
  • takes place in the real world, (not laboratory)
  • how people give meaning to their own experience
  • Interpretation of those meaning
  • subjective – describes and explains events and experiences
  • expert knowledge of an area is necessary to try to interpret qualitative data

Positives                                                          Negatives……………………………………………….

Open-ended and flexible ”rich data”         Demands researcher flexibility/sensitivity

of individual experiences (IDIOGRAPHIC)

Data analysed and interpreted.                                 No control of variables

Seek common themes not hypothesis.                      Cannot repeat

For investigating complex and sensitive issues.      Time consuming due to volume of data

Explain PHENOMENA –go beyond mere                  Analysis difficult

observation to understand what lies behind them   Interpret may be subjective

Generate new ideas and theories to

explain and overcome problems.

People are studied in their own environment,

which increases credibility.

 

Kids in science enjoyed the video clip when writing up their lab experiment. It seemed to make variables clearer

The second clip is linked to the question posed in the essay.

B – BRIEF EVALUATION OF BOTH METHODS

Reflexivity: Researcher’s need to constantly be aware of:

  • how and why they are conducting the research
  • recognize at what points their own beliefs and opinions might have influenced the subject matter, data collection (process) or analysis (outcome).

Based on the premise that ‘knowledge cannot be separated from the knower’ (Steedman, 1991). ‘In the social sciences, there is only interpretation. Nothing speaks for itself’ (Denzin, 1994). Reflexive research should account of this researcher involvement.

  • The concept and practice of reflexivity have been defined in many ways.
  • 1. Alvesson and Sköldberg (2000)  ‘interpretation of interpretation’ – another layer of analysis after data have been interpreted.
  • 2. Woolgar (1988),  ‘the ethnographer [q.v.] of the text’ (p. 14).
  • Introspective reflexivity refers to how a person’s values, beliefs, acquaintances and interests influence their research, stakeholder or work (Finlay, 2002).
    • Participant  bias: of researcher and research – can affect trustworthiness of data (positively or negatively).
    • Researcher bias: own beliefs determine results rather than focus on participants
  • Epistemological (knowledge) reflexivity attempts to identify the foundations of knowledge and the implications of any findings (Johnson & Duberley, 2003).
  • Acknowledge multiple answers by a balanced cycle of Reflexivity, Reflectivity, and Responsiveness in Qualitative Research (Dewey, 1934).
  • temp.png

C – SAMPLING METHODS:

Sampling: Representative and unbiased selection from a population as it is not possible to count all individuals in an area/context.

Difference in sampling methods:tempN

                                          

PURPOSIVE SAMPLING AND SNOWBALL SAMPLING

Purposive sampling

Participants chosen on basis of particular characteristics that help explore the research topic e.g. specific experiences, social roles etc.

Snowball sampling

The researcher simply asks participants in the study if they know any other potential participants. Time & cost efficient.

Simple random sampling

Random selection from population

Convenience sampling

Select from the next 20 stakeholders (Cheap but participants are likely to skew data due to their existing interest)

Systematic sampling

Select one after every set number (only go if there is no pattern in the data)

Cluster sampling

Divide into sections with all characteristics to event bias.

Stratified sampling

Divided into layers depending on one variable e.g. age/gender/location (20-30years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years)

Judgemental sampling*

Researcher selects with a purpose in mind (e.g. selects best from a limited number)

Quota sampling*

From a particular demographic suited to the study. Variable controls are implemented to achieve an appropriate sample content.

D – ETHICS

The UCL Institute of Education maintains its own Research Ethics Committee. All members of staff at the UCL Institute of Education should submit completed applications to researchethics@ioe.ac.uk

Codes of Ethics: British Educational Research Guidelines

  1. Do not disturb class
  2. Intrusion causing absence from part of lesson
  3. Secret aims: Stakeholders do not realise implications of what they do/say.
  4. Embarrassment/Lowered self-esteem
  5. Resentment if asked excessive personal questions

At UCL Institute of Education all research projects by staff, students or visitors which collect or use data from human participants including secondary data analysis and systematic reviews are required to gain ethical approval before the project starts. This includes preliminary and pilot studies.

  • informed consent
  • protection from harm/distress/disadvantage/anxiety
  • respect for the participants’ integrity
  • privacy
  • right to withdraw
  • sensitive issues
  • researcher must not get personally involved and lose objectivity
  • INJURY

ETHICS IN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

ETHICS IN THE ARTS

VALUE OF ENQUIRY IN CPD

 

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