Practitioner enquiry is variously associated with:

  1. school improvement,
  2. teachers’ professional development
  3. educational innovation.

 Benefit to teachers:

  1. Reflection on their classroom practice,
  2. Gather evidence of students’ learning and engagement
  3. Design pedagogical experiments and test their efficacy.


Johnson & Onwveglouzie, Link Johnson & Onwuegbuzie PDF

1. Concluded that mixed research compliments Qualitative and quantitative research.

Theorists for Qualitative include:                         Theorists for Qualitative include:
Campbell &Stanley (1963)                                      Ayer (1959)
Lincoln & Guba (1985)                                            Maxwell & Delancy (2004)
                                                                                    Popper (1959)
                                                                                    Schrag (1992)
2. They contrasted qualitative and quantitative research


Anti-positivists (constructivists)                       Positivists                                                                           
Social observations/culture                                 Based on recordings in false conditions
No set objectives                                                    Set objectives/hypothesis eliminated with own bias
Writing style: critical , detailed, emphatic       Writing style impersonal/passive/terminology based


Do not mix styles (Howel, 1988) but this reference says MIX THE STYLES (this reference)


3. They outlined a framework from which to design mixed method

1. Used empirical observations to address research questions.

Describe data, construct explanatory arguments from data and speculate about outcomes (Sechrest & Sidani, 1995)

2. Safeguard against conformation bas and other sources of invalidity found in all research (Sanderowski, 1986)

3. Make warranted assertions about humans in environments in which they live or work (Siesta & Burbules, 2003)

4. Goal of understanng leads to examination of many different phenomena including holistic phenomena like intensions, experiences, attitudes and cultures.

For educational research use a HOLISTIC APPROACH.

Researchers need knowledge of multimodels as modern research is complex, intra and interdisciplinary and dynamic.

Epistemological and methodological pluralism drew on strengths of both models

List of researchers who agree with mixed models listed.

4. They contrasted a mixed TYPOLOGIES (model) and mixed method research




Mix qualitative and quantitative to answer the question

5. Explained the order of qualitative and quantitative in research

  1. Does qualitative or quantitative become dominant or equal
  2. Time ordering
  3. Adjust order to progress seamlessly
  4. Aims/Data collection methods/research methods/Data analysis/Evaluation
  5. Critical or ideological (vision) approach

Mix qualitative and quantitative models to the question

Evaluate the impact of the order on the conclusion formed

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