The morning started with a talk by Dr J Morgan on Data analysis.
This is my interpretation based on notes I scribbled….
(Benefits enquiry where the practitioners wish to improve specifically their practice based on studies in their context and genre).
This inductive methodology gathers a range of responses through interviews, questionnaires and case studies. This process looks at the MOTIVATION, FEELINGS and THOUGHTS of the participants. The benefit is relevant data with a variety of conclusions, which in themselves raise further questions. The characteristics of the participants are disclosed and must be sensitively unravelled based on the researchers skill and beliefs. This requires the researcher identifying theme and beliefs in the information provided.
EVALUATION OF QUALITATIVE DATA
Complex as data is multi-dimensional, rich in opinions from experienced individuals. Explains issues by going beyond Observation—Explain—Observation…Refletivity needed to overcome bias.
(Benefits enquiry where the researcher wants to identify the effect of a specific variable).
This deductive methodology determines statistically how many or to what extent participants respond to the independent variable. There is no consideration of opinion or why individuals respond and all variables other than the one investigated should be kept constant. Consequently, analysis is suited to large participant numbers as a mean response will improve reliability of results.
EVALUATION OF QUANTITATIVE DATA
Statistical analysis based on the variation around a mean. Researchers identify a result and can analyses the variation between the mean of samples recorded. Data is compiled on graphs rather than dialogue.
Task 1: To identify which holiday destination was preferred.
Quantitative results: 3 Sun 1 Cottage 1 Ski
Qualitative results: All individuals wanted a holiday and any of the destinations would be acceptable. Most individuals selected the sun because it was warm and relaxing. The individual select skiing wanted to use some energy and had been on a beach holiday recently so wand a change. Cottage was selected as the individual did not like weather that was too warm!!!
This qualitative methodology increased discussion within the group and each group identified common themes. Results were more informative and explained the choices and thinking of the group. When results were shared with the group results became further informed but had the same themes. This task encouraged me to proceed with mixed-methods in my practitioner enquiry.
A subset of a population that is used to represent the entire group
1. Researcher has control and can 2. make results randomised to sure 3. everyone has equal chance of selection.
1. Researcher has less control and can 2. take advantage of opportunities which come along. 3. Cheap, easy and quick. 4. Inherent selection bias involved.
- Simple random sampling CLICK LINK: Simple Random Sampling
A simple random sample is a subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen creating an biased representation of a group. Sampling error: If the sample does not end up accurately reflecting the population.
3.Systematic random sampling CLICK LINK: Systematic Samping
Systematic sampling is a type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed, periodic interval. This interval, called the sampling interval, is calculated by dividing the population size by the desired sample size. Despite the sample population being selected in advance, systematic sampling is still thought of as being random, provided the periodic interval is determined beforehand and the starting point is random.
4. Multistage sampling CLICK LINK: Multistage sampling
A multi-stage sample is completed sequentially across two or more hierarchical levels, such as first at the students, second at the teachers, third at the senior management, fourth at the Local Authority, and ultimately within the local community. In multi-stage sampling, the sample is selected at random within stages, often taking into account the hierarchical (nested) structure of the population. Any random combination of random sampling.
5. Cluster sampling CLICK LINK: CLUSTER SAMPLING
Cluster sampling is a technique in which clusters of participants that represent the population are identified and included in the sample. A cluster of participants that represent the population are identified and included in the sample. A cluster is perceived as a sampling unit, whereas a strata includes only specific elements in the sampling unit. This is the most time-efficient, practically-efficient and cost-efficient probability design for large geographical areas as it increases accessibility to samples in cluster. Disadvantages include high sampling error and group-level information must be known.
- Judgement sampling
- Quota sampling
- Convenience sampling
- Extensive sampling
This was followed by a talk by Dr R Drury on Ethics.
Ethics combines the three ideologies:
Virtues: Respect for self (e.g. Justice)
Morals: Respect for others (e.g. Respect)
Conduct: Respect within society (e.g. behaviour)
We were 3 unethical research programmes. I think it is the minor ethical situation will impact most on our research. Where the researcher unwittingly causes physical/psychological harm to participates or themselves.
Disadvantage participants Distress Resentment Embarrassment Self-esteem Security Harm Anxiety
If completing research at RCS we must return:
1. A form from the Ethics Committee
2. RCS risk assessment
3. Risk assessment in the school
4. Consent form completed by each participant
ALL PARTICIPANTS HAVE THE RIGHT TO:
1. Confidentiality and autonomy
2. Can leave at any time
3. Voluntary participation
4. Researcher will not benefit from their participation
This follows the Data Protection Act, Safe Password Storage Legalities, Ethical committees’ approval of procedures and materials and a risk assessment is completed.
This was followed by a talk by G Low called ‘Disabled or disconnected’
The focus of G Lows PhD is Disabled Musicians. He is considering the physical barriers and social attitudes they encounter. He adopts a qualitative approach based on semi-structured interviews of 17-75 years of all backgrounds, instruments and impairment. He considers several themes: Participation and interaction, expectations, support, access, attitudes and employment. Low talked in detail about the problems experienced by individual artists and this was insightful.
Low issued a list of terms which may help correctly define individuals with disabilities when we write our essays or enquiry. CLICK THE LINK Terms when writing about disability
I felt that fatigue and fulfilling individual ambitions were the main themes.
I felt the perspective he took was informative and raised understanding rather than focus negatively on the ideology of disabilities.
I feel this will generate a significant volume of data but common themes may be difficult to identify with only disability as the link. I also feel that this research would benefit from a control group of able bodied musicians to determine if the feelings these musicians are experiencing are different because of their disability or are encountered by all musicians. I feel for example that all artists would experience problems gaining employment.
Teachers describe this topic Additional Support Needs. This means all individuals need help of some type depending on their skills. In contrast Low called individuals ‘disabled’. This shows a difference in perspective due to the context of the study and individual opinion.
We completed a workshop without sight, sound and movement. This raised personal questions about the approach artists take when one or more senses were removed.
We completed a workshop within our practitioner enquiry context led by Dr J Morgan.
Aim: To investigate the following
- Difference between Qualitative and quantitative sampling
- Independent an independent variables
- Variables in human studies
- Mean, mode and median
- Qualitative methodology
We completed tasks in pairs and as a whole group to answer questions and provide examples on these 5 areas.
BRILLIANT QUALITATIVE TASK
We completed an interview task where we gathered information from another student and then Jill collected the responses and identified common themes. This was an excellent example of qualitative research.
Our themes were: Professional life long learning; inspired by learning and teaching; new approach; to show true potential